They find a complex but strong relationship between poverty and domestic violence. speculate that one explanation for the increased risk of domestic violence in poorer neighborhoods might be differences in law enforcement availability and practices—economically deprived communities might have less police notification, attention, and documentation.
The desire to dominate one's partner may be manifested using methods other than violence, such as attempts at financial, social, and decision-making control.
Some researchers believe attitudes about violence are shaped early in life, long before the first punch is thrown in a relationship.
In "The Attitudes towards Violence Scale: A Measure for Adolescents" (Journal of Interpersonal Violence, November 1999), Jeanne B. asked junior high and high school students attending an inner-city public school in a midwestern city about their attitudes toward violence.
Researchers have studied domestic violence for about thirty years.
While scholars from different intellectual traditions have varying theories on the causes of domestic violence, sociological explanations have gained wide acceptance.
In the survey, families living at or below the poverty level had a rate of marital violence 500% greater than more affluent families.
In "Gendering Violence: Masculinity and Power in Men's Accounts of Domestic Violence" (Gender and Society, June 2001), a study of thirty-three male batterers, Kristin L.
This theory is offered as an explanation of why some segments of society and some cultures are more violent than others.
This theory is perhaps the most widely accepted theory of violence.
Anderson and Debra Umberson state that "violence is …
an effective means by which batterers reconstruct men as masculine and women as feminine."Another sociological theory explaining domestic violence posits that there is a subculture of violence in which some groups within society hold values that permit, and even encourage, the use of violence.
It describes a system of violence that operates at the individual level, the family level, and the societal level.